Definition and Example Definition: A teaching method that relates spoken sounds to written symbols in systematic and predictable ways, and how readers can use this knowledge to decode print (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 125). Phonics relates to a child's ability to decode words when reading and encode words when spelling. When learning phonics, children learn the alphabetic principle, which is the systematic and predictable relationship between written letters and spoken sounds (Texas education agency, 2002). Example: A student knows that a word with a vowel and an e on the end usually has a long vowel sound.
Instructional Resources Example 1: Blending Syllables in Multisyllabic Words Here is a game children in grades K-1 can play to practice blending syllables in multisyllabic words. Click on the link below and look at the first activity. –Multisyllabic Words Example 2: Blending Onset and Rime to Make Words This game allows children in grades K-1 to practice blending onsets and rimes to make words. Click on the link below and look at the fourth activity. –Onset and Rime– Cube Words
Instructional Practices Example 1: Blending -Through modeling and the use of a graphic organizer, the teacher can show students how to see the first letter of a three letter VCV word, say the sound, then repeat the process with the second and third letters of the word. -After repeating each sound a few times, each time a little faster, the teacher is able to model for the student how to blend letter sounds together to form a word. -Eventually, teachers move into blending letter sounds within syllables to sound out multisyllabic words (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 154-155).
Example 2: Segmenting -When teaching writing, teachers can use the reverse process to help students correctly spell words. -The teacher begins by modeling how to stretch a word out in order to hear each individual sound. As each sound becomes obvious, the teacher notes it by writing the letter associated with that sound. Three-letter VCV words are good choices for beginning instruction in this skill. -The teacher can introduce more complicated word patterns after students have mastered the VCV pattern, and later introduce segmentation of words into syllables before segmenting sounds for spelling (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, 157-158).
Authentic Assessments Example 1: Letter Name Accuracy Test This test is designed to discover whether children can identify all upper- and lower-case letters of the alphabet. –It uses randomized letter displays –Students read letters from left to right, line-by-line, starting from the top of the page, while the teacher keeps the letters below the line of focus covered. –Next, students name letters that the teacher points to. Students should be able to name all of the upper- and lowercase letters accurately before the teacher focuses on fluency or rate (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 142).
Example 2: Running Records This test helps teachers determine how well students apply their word recognition knowledge and skill when they read authentic texts. -The teacher notes everything the student says, including words read correctly as well as miscues, while reading a selected passage. -Students should be able to read 95-100% of words correctly when reading a text written at their independent level, 90-94% of words correctly at their instructional level, and 89% or less correctly at their frustration level. -Students should read passages of 100-200 words in length, and should read them twice orally before the running record begins. -Teachers can use an additional test to examine the miscues that the student made, to determine whether the student is making errors related to meaning, syntax or visual information (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 145-146).