Definition and Example Definition: Fluency involves accurate, effortless and automatic word identification, age- or grade-appropriate reading rate, suitable expression and correct text phrasing. Example: A fluent reader reads aloud effortlessly so that his or her mind can focus on comprehension.
Instructional Resources Example 1: Speedy Rime Words -K-1 students can play this game to improve their reading accuracy and rate. -Click on the link below and look at the first activity. -Speedy Rime Words Example 2: Reader's Theater -Students can practice reading with proper phrasing, intonation, and expression in connected text. -Click on the link below to access an example of this resource for students in grades K-1. -Reader's Theater Instructional Practices Example 1: Read Aloud -This practice allows a teacher to model reading fluency. Teachers can also purposely model disfluent reading in order to clarify the concept of fluency and its characteristics for students. Using a think-aloud and guiding a discussion to elicit students' understanding of these components will make this practice effective. -Reading aloud forms the first part of the Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) framework, which is an evidence-based model that helps students develop fluency (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 191). Example 2: Choral Reading -Another instructional practice that supports fluency development requires the teacher to utilize one of the following formats for choral reading of a text: -Unison reading (everyone reads aloud at the same time) -Echo reading (everyone echoes a passage that a teacher or student has just read aloud) -antiphonal reading (two groups take turns reading a sentence or two aloud from a passage) -Reading in rounds (different groups read simultaneously, but not in unison, starting at different times on a staggered schedule). -Feedback from the teacher is crucial to making these practices successful. (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 192). Example 3: Reader's Theater -This strategy is a fun and extremely engaging way for students to build oral reading fluency. -The teacher purchases, writes or adapts a script from an existing story at a reading level that is easy for the students who will be using it. -Students will each receive a copy of the script, on which the teacher has highlighted each individual student's lines (or this can be done by the students with guidance from the teacher). -Students practice reading their lines silently first, then aloud. -Repeated practice and/or performance of the script help students develop fluency (Bafile).
Authentic Assessment Example 1: One Minute Reading Sample -The teacher asks a student to read aloud a grade level passage for one minute. -Words read incorrectly, omissions, substitutions and hesitations of three or more seconds count as errors and are subtracted from the total words read. -The score indicates total words read accurately per minute (wcpm), and should be compared to oral reading fluency (ORF) norms, which are available at the DIBELS website. -The teacher can use this information to determine if a student needs additional support with reading rate and accuracy. -Students can also learn to do this assessment themselves to track and own their progress throughout the year (Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 180). Example 2: Comprehensive Oral Reading Fluency (CORF) Score -By using this scale, the teacher can assess a student's acquisition of the components of oral reading fluency. -The scale is available in Appendix D from this source(Reutzel & Cooter, 2012, p. 184).